India’s vast population depend upon agriculture. As agriculture contribute to larger segment to GDP and also provide employment to a large section of the society. The wealth of the nation depend upon the agriculture as it also contribute to international trade. But agriculture is facing many problem after independence.
- There were zamindars who collect rent and exploit the tillers.
- Irrigation facility is not available to all.
- Farmers do not have their own land holdings.
- Lack of money to farmers and not even means to get finance.
To solve these problems some reforms adopted by the government-
- Land reforms– Land reform abolish intermediaries and make tillers the owner of the land.
- Land ceiling- Under land ceiling a land portion is fixed which is hold by the land owners.
- Green revolution- Green revolution provide the use of High yielding variety of seeds.
Green revolution came to India in 2 phase. First phase from 1960-1970 the use of HYV seeds is to limited states and wheat crops only. But with second phase it extended to all states and different variety of crops. But these HYV seeds need more pesticide and fertilizers. These fertilizers and pesticides were provided by government with subsidy.
Green revolution bring revolution in the agriculture as farmer’s output increases. Framer sold these increase in output in market which called MARKETED SURPLUS.