After all, an infant is a social creature, you must have observed that they tend to be happy on seeing familiar faces. They tend to react more to the similar faces, during the crucial period children tend to develop attachments with their caregivers and this also have long term impacts. You must have noticed that small children usually smiles while meeting their mothers or similar faces while they cry and behave irritated when they are separated from their mothers.
The emotional bond of affection that develop between infants and their parents (caregivers) is called attachment.
Harlows and harlows experiment is a classic study example that demonstrates this attachment issue, he used baby monkeys who were separated after 8 hours of their birth, they were raised u for next 6 months by the surrogate mothers one made of wires and other of cloth, half monkeys were fed by the wired mother while rest by cloth mother. Regardless of whosoever they were fed monkeys showed preference for the cloth mother. Thus it can be comprehended that nourishment, confort and contact are crucial aspects of forming an attachment.
Children usually develops a sense of trust during this stage if he successfully gets all the comfort during this age child feels that the world is a confortable place to live, while if they dont develop trust then they tend to feel that world is not a good place to live, various problems are faced if misturst is developed during the earlier stages.
Parenting also tend to affect the attachment and development, responsive and sensitive parenting can influence the development. If the parents are accepting, affectionate and sensitive to the problems of child then it offers infant a strong base to explore the environment. Such infants develop a secure attachment. On the other hand, if parents are insensitive and show dissatisfaction and find fault with the child, it can lead to feelings of self-doubt in the child. Securely attached infants respond positively when picked up, move freely, and play whereas insecurely attached infants feel anxious when separated and cry due to fear and get upset. A close interactive relationship with warm and affectionate adults is a child’s
first step towards healthy development in the children.