Explain the basic argument of the theory of demographic transition. Why is the transition period associated with a ‘population explosion’?


Solution: According to the theory of demographic transition, population growth is linked to general levels of economic development, and every civilization follows a predictable pattern of population expansion.

Population increase can be divided into three stages:

 Stage 1: [Underdeveloped countries] Primitive Stage

  • In poor and technologically backward civilizations, like in Africa, birth rates are high because individuals are uninformed of the benefits of having fewer families and are not educated; death rates are also high because health and medical facilities are lacking, resulting in a low population.

[Developing countries] Stage 2 The birth and mortality rates are both relatively high, although the net growth rate is still low.

The birth rate is high because this civilization is patriarchal, meaning that men decide how many children should be born and that male offspring are desired. The population is illiterate and uneducated.

The death rate is also high due to a lack of health and medical facilities

.[Developed countries] Stage 3 Because people are educated and aware, they take contraceptives, and birth control is widely used. Because of the lack of health and medical services, the death rate is also low, resulting in a small population.

Transitional Stage: The period between being backward and being skilled]: Because the population growth rate is quite high at this time, yet death rates are decreasing due to improved medical facilities, nutrition, and medical and technical advances, this transition phase is connected with a population explosion.

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