Explain the concept of the public sector and private sector.


By Harshvardhan, the Subject Matter Expert at Edumarz

Solution: The private sector consists of businesses owned by individuals or a group of individuals, as you have learnt in the previous chapter. The various forms of organisation are sole proprietorship, partnership, joint Hindu family, cooperative and company. 

The public sector consists of various organisations owned and managed by the government. These organisations may either be partly or wholly owned by the central or state government. They may also be a part of the ministry or come into existence by a Special Act of the Parliament. The government, through these enterprises, participates in the economic activities of the country.

The government in its industrial policy resolutions, from time to time, defines the area of activities in which the private sector and public sector are allowed to operate. In the Industrial Policy Resolution 1948, the Government of India had specified the approach towards the development of the industrial sector. The roles of the private and public sectors were clearly defined and the government through various Acts and Regulations was overseeing the economic activities of both the private and public sectors. The Industrial Policy Resolution, 1956 had also laid down certain objectives for the public sector to follow so as to accelerate the rate of growth and industrialisation. The public sector was given a lot of importance but at the same time, mutual dependency of public and private sectors was emphasised. The 1991 industrial policy was radically different from all the earlier policies where the government was deliberating disinvestment of the public sector and allowing greater freedom to the private sector. At the same time, foreign direct investment was invited from business houses. outside India. Thus, multinational corporations or global enterprises which operate in more than one country gained entry into the Indian economy. Thus, we have public sector units, private sector enterprises and global enterprises coexisting in the Indian economy.

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