Explain the ‘exclusive’ and ‘inclusive’ methods used in classification of data.


Ans. The classes are formed in this method so that the upper class limit of one class becomes the lower class limit of the next class. In this method, data continuity is maintained. The upper class limit is excluded in this method, but the lower class limit of a class is included in the interval.

An observation that is exactly equal to the upper class limit would not be included in that class, but would be included in the next class, according to this method. However, if it equaled the lower class limit, it would be included in that class. For example, if the intervals in class are 0-5, 5-10, 15-20, and so on, a value of 10 would fall into the interval 10-15 rather than the interval 5-10.

The inclusive method does not take into account the upper class limit in a class interval. It is the upper class in a class. As a result, both class limits are a part of the class interval. For example, class intervals 6-10, 11-15, and so on are all inclusive.

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