Fission and Fragmentation


Akanksha Soni, Academic Content Writer at Edumarz

  • Fission:- 

  • It is a method of asexual reproduction.

  • In this process a single parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells. These daughter cells develop into a new organism . 

  • It occurs mainly in unicellular organisms such as amoeba, bacteria, leishmania,plants, sea stars, planaria, molds and spirogyra etc.

  • Nuclear division takes place in this method.

  • According to the formation of daughter cells, fission can be classified as binary fission and multiple fission.

  1. Binary fission:- In this method the parent cell produces two daughter nuclei by the process of cytokinesis. These daughter cells develop into a new organisms. It is the main method of reproduction in bacteria by the process of mitosis.

Example:- Amoeba and Leishmania ( Kala-azar ) etc.

  1. Multiple fission:In this method the nucleus is divided several times by the process of mitosis and later cytokinesis . As a result, several daughter cells arise that are genetically identical. It occurs mainly in protists such as sporozoans and algae. It can also happen in bacteria.

Example:– Plasmodium.

  • Fragmentation:–  

  • It is also known as clonal fragmentation or colonial organisms

  • Fragmentation is a method of asexual reproduction.

  • It  occurs mainly in multicellular organisms such as plants , sea stars, planaria, molds, spirogyra, sponges, annelids, and acoel flatworms etc.

  • In this method the parent organisms is broken into smaller pieces or fragments, each fragments capable of producing new organisms. 

  • These are the main methods of vegetative reproduction in plants by which they produce rhizomes, stolons, bulbils, adventitious plantlets etc.

  • It  increases the members of that particular colony. 

  • The mechanism of fragmentation in animals is paratomy and achiotomy.

  • Paratomy is the method of splitting  perpendicular to the antero-posterior axis.

  • Achitomy is the method of splitting at the particular point from which the missing tissues and organs regenerate.

  • No nuclear division takes place during fragmentation.

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