Haritha,Subject Matter Expert at Edumarz
Solution:Identification of evolutionary relationships between two species is carried out by analyzing their characteristics.
Different organisms show similarity in structure due to their common ancestral origin and these similar structures are termed as homologous organs.
Example:The basic structure of limbs in birds,reptiles,and amphibians show similarity in structure but these structures are modified to perform different functions.
Organisms show differences in their structure but perform the same function.These structures are called analogous organs.
Example:Wings of birds and bats
These structures do not show similarities in structure.Wings of bats are formed of skin folds stretched mainly between elongated fingers but the wings of birds are formed as feathery covering around the regions of the arm.
When two organisms formed from different species and show similarities in their functions for adapting into the environment is called convergent evolution.These organisms show analogous structures.
Example:Wings of insects,bats and birds
In divergent evolution, different species are formed from ancestral species
and this also results in the formation of new species.These organisms develop homologous organs.
Example:Limbs of birds,reptiles