-Priyanti, Subject Matter Expert at Edumarz
Solution: Phanerogams (also known as spermatophytes) refer to those plants that bear seeds for reproduction. Gymnosperms and angiosperms fall under this category, while algae, bryophytes and pteridophytes are classified as cryptogams (seedless plants). The seeds produced by phanerogams may be naked (as in gymnosperms) or are enclosed inside fruits (in angiosperms).
Pteridophytes are seedless plants possessing a fairly developed plant body (sporophyte) and an underground rhizome network. They predominantly reproduce through spore formation; their gametophyte stage is inconspicuous and different from that of higher plants.
Both pteridophytes and phanerogams have vascular tissues (xylem and phloem) and are collectively classified as tracheophyta. Their main difference lies in the fact that the former does not produce seeds while the latter constitute seed-bearing plants.