Is cooperation always voluntary or is it enforced? If enforced, is it sanctions, or is the strength of norms that ensure cooperation? Discuss with examples.


-Mamta Dey, Subject matter expert, Edumarz.

Solution: Cooperation, competitiveness, and conflict are frequently intertwined and difficult to separate.

We may use the example of women’s rights to better understand how cooperation can lead to conflict, as well as the difference between “forced” and “voluntary” cooperation. Daughters who were aware of their property rights were hesitant to claim a whole or partial share of the natal property for fear of souring relations with their mothers.

their kin. As a result, daughters’ participation with natal family members is not purely voluntary; rather, it is essentially compelled. If daughters want to preserve a healthy relationship with their natal family members, they have no choice. Cooperation can be voluntary or coerced depending on the situation. To achieve shared goals, such as family prosperity, all family members work and earn money, or in villages, all village residents volunteer to work in the field to bring prosperity to the community. According to the conflict perspective, in communities divided by caste or class, some groups are disadvantaged and discriminated against.

 Cooperation can be considered as a common trait of all societies, explained as inevitable interaction among persons living in a community and pursuing their goals. The dominant groups maintain their uneven order through a variety of cultural norms as well as other techniques that include force or even violence. Cooperation is explained from a functionalist standpoint in terms of society as a whole. The rules or sanctions are primarily viewed by functionalists as a “system need” of society — a set of functional requirements.

Sociological research has demonstrated how norms, penalties, and socialization patterns create a specific social order that is a functional requirement for society’s

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