Suminder kaur, Academic Content Writer at Edumarz


  • Food is burned in the cells of the body with the aid of oxygen to release energy through respiration. It takes place in the cells’ mitochondria.

  • ATP molecules (Adenosine triphosphate) are made from ADP molecules (Adenosine diphosphate) and inorganic phosphate using the energy generated during respiration.


  • Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) molecules are used to store energy in cells. When the cells require energy, ATP is broken down into ADP in the presence of water and energy is released.





Respiration may be divided into two categories. There are two types of respiration: aerobic and anaerobic.


  • Aerobic respiration: This kind of respiration occurs in the presence of oxygen. It generates more power. Carbon dioxide, water, and energy are the final products. It occurs in the majority of species.

  • In aerobic respiration, glucose is converted to pyruvate in the cytoplasm in the presence of oxygen, and pyruvate is subsequently transformed to carbon dioxide, water, and energy in the mitochondria in the presence of oxygen.        


  • Anaerobic respiration: occurs when there is no oxygen present. It generates less power. Lactic acid or ethanol, carbon dioxide, and energy are the end products. Muscle cells and yeast are also affected.

  • In anaerobic respiration, glucose is transformed to pyruvate, which is then turned to lactic acid and energy in the absence of oxygen.


  • In anaerobic respiration, glucose is transformed to pyruvate, which is then turned to ethanol, carbon dioxide, and energy in the absence of oxygen. Fermentation is the term for this process.




 Breakdown of glucose by various pathways :-








  • Human respiratory system includes the main organs such as nostrils, nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi,  bronchioles, lungs and diaphragm.

  • Air enters the body via nostrils.The dust particles are trapped by the hairs and mucus. It then reaches the lungs through the pharynx, larynx, trachea, and bronchi. When there is no air in the trachea, cartilage rings in the trachea keep it from collapsing. 

  • The bronchi is divided into smaller tubes known as bronchioles, which lead to tiny air sacs known as alveoli. The alveoli are supplied with blood arteries, which allow for gas exchange. The alveoli contribute in enhancing the surface area available for gas exchange.



  • When we take a breath, the diaphragm muscles contract and travel downward, the chest cavity expands, and air enters the lungs.


  • When we exhale, the diaphragm muscles relax and travel higher, the chest cavity contracts, and air is expelled from the lungs.

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