Suminder kaur, Academic Content Writer at Edumarz


  • Photosynthesis requires a variety of raw materials. Plants take in CO2 through their stomata, which diffuses into their cells, and they take in nitrogen, phosphorus, and other minerals through their roots.

  • Because the distance between the soil and the leaves is more. So, the diffusion mechanism alone isn’t enough to get these basic elements to the leaves.

  • Therefore, a proper transporting system is required for transportation in plants.

  • Plants require less energy as they do not move.

  • Plants two conducting tissues that help in transportation.

  • They are – xylem and phloem.

  • Xylem- moves water & minerals from roots to the leaves. And phloem is responsible for movement of food from leaves to other parts of the body.

  • These two tissues extend throughout the body of the plant.




  • Xylem is a specialized vascular tissue in plants. 

  • It is a complex tissue that consists of 4 basic types of cells namely: tracheids, xylem vessels, xylem parenchyma and xylem fibre.

  • The only living component of xylem is xylem parenchyma.

  • Xylem transports unidirectional i.e from roots to leaves only (upward direction).

  • Water and minerals enter the roots by diffusion.The suction force created by transpiration then aids in the upward transport of water and minerals.

  • The water then travels through the plant to reach the leaves. This is called Ascent of sap. 



  • Food (carbohydrates and sugars) is transported from the leaves to the rest of the plant. This is referred to as translocation.

  • Phloem is also a complex tissue that is composed of four basic types of cells namely: sieve tubes, companion cells, phloem fiber and phloem parenchyma.

  • The only dead component of phloem is phloem fibre.

  • Phloem tissue works bi-directional i.e both in upward and downward direction and takes place in sieve tubes with the help of companion cells.

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