• Hydrosphere consists of a layer of water which is an inexhaustible resource.

  • About 97% of earth’s surface is covered in water. It is  widely used for drinking, washing, cleaning and many other purposes.

  • Water exists in three forms namely – liquid above zero degree celsius and below 100 degree celsius, and solid below zero degree celsius and above 100 degree celsius as vapor.

  • Most of the water on Earth’s surface is present in oceans and  sea. These water bodies consist of saline water. We can not consume saline water.

  • The fresh water is found in rivers, underground water, lakes and ponds.

  • All living organisms require water because all cellular processes use water as a medium in which substances are dissolved and transported. Hence, living organisms need to maintain a certain level of water in their bodies to stay alive.

  • The number of individuals of species and diversity of a place is decided by the availability of water.


  • Water pollution is the polluting of water bodies with hazardous and undesired elements.

  • Pollutants in water :-

  • Heat and oil spills are examples of physical water contaminants.

  • Detergents, fertilisers, pesticides, and other chemical contaminants

  • Biological contaminants such as viruses, bacteria, and other pathogens.

  • Water contamination sources

  • Sewage.

  • Waste from the manufacturing industry.

  • Detergents and soaps

  • Petroleum oil, for example.

  • Water contamination has a number of negative consequences.

  • Typhoid, cholera, jaundice, and other human ailments are caused by it.

  • It has a negative impact on the environment.

  • It promotes eutrophication by causing water bloom.

  • It produces a temperature shift.

  • Biological amplification occurs as a result.

  • It causes organic stuff to decompose.

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