Reproduction in human beings- Male and Female reproductive system


 Akanksha Soni, Academic content writer at Edumarz

  • Reproduction in human beings:- 

  • Reproduction in human beings is takes place by sexual methods. Where both male and female gametes fertilize to give rise to an embryo. These fertilization takes place inside the body of the females.  It is known as internal fertilization. Hence human beings are  viviparous in nature, where organisms give rise embryo directly instead of laying eggs.

  •  Male individuals produces male gametes is known as sperms. Sperms are motile in nature because they have tails and it is also produced in large number in the testes.

  • Female individuals produces female gametes is known as ovum or ova. Female gametes are bigger, non motile and only one ovary produces one ovum in one month. These ovum contains stored food.

  •  Human gametes ( Male and female gametes) are microscopic unicellular and have half the number of chromosomes as compared to the body cells.  

  • The reproductive period active from the age of puberty . The puberty age in human males is between 11 to 13 years, while in human females is between 10 to 12 years of age. The puberty period is known as adolescence period where the rate of general body growth begins to slow down while the reproductive tissues begin to mature. These are known as Secondary sexual characters. 

  • In this secondary sexual characters are appeared thick dark hair start growing in new parts of the body such as arm pits and genital area between the thighs, thinner hair appear on legs, arms and face. At the age of puberty skin look becomes oily and pimples.  In this time individuals become more conscious of their bodies, become more independent and more aggressive in nature etc. It is common behaviour changing for both girls and boys. But also some behaviour is different from girls and boys.

  • The secondary sexual character in boys is beard and mustache start appearing, voice begins to crack, reproductive organs are develop, mature and start producing sperms, penis size begins to become enlarge and erect, and daydreams or at night. 

  • The secondary sexual character in girls is breast size begins to increase, skin of the nipples darkens, menstruation cycle starts and voice change. 

  • Male reproductive system;-  Male reproductive systems consists of the following parts are as follows:-

  1. Testes

  2. Male reproductive ducts

  1. Epididymis

  2. Vas deferens or the sperm duct

  3. Urethra

  1. Male reproductive  glands

  1. Seminal vesicles

  2. Prostrate gland

  3. Cowper’s  gland

  1. Penis

  1. Testes:- 

  • Male human consists of pair of testes.

  • It is situated beg of skin known as scrotum. It lies the outside the pelvic cavity because testes have to be maintained at 1-3° C lesser temperature lesser than the body temperature in order to produce functional sperms.

  • Testes are produced male gametes are known as sperms.

  • It is also produce a male reproductive hormone called testosterone which is responsible for producing sperms as well as secondary sexual characteristics in human males.

  1. Male reproductive ducts:-

  1. Epididymis:- 

  • Testes are attached highly coiled tube is called epididymis.

  • In epididymis, the sperms are stored and get matured.

  1. Vas deferens or sperm duct:- It is thin and arises from the testes.

  2. Urethra:- 

  • Urethra is a common pathway for the seminal fluid and urine in males.

  • Urethra is longer in males than females.

  1. Prostrate glands:- It is an necessary gland in males which pours its secretion into the sperm duct along the seminal fluid from the testes into the penis. 

  2. Penis:- It is lies outside the body and the function of penis is eliminate both urine and semen.


Fig:- Male Reproductive System

  • Female reproductive system:-  Female reproductive systems have entirely within the pelvic cavity. These following parts are as follows:-

  1. Ovaries

  2. Fallopian tubes or oviducts

  3. Uterus or womb

  4. Cervix 

  5. Vagina or birth canal

  6. Urethra

  1. Ovaries:-

  • Female human consists of pair of ovaries.

  • It is almond shaped and present inside the abdominal cavity.

  • Ovaries are produced thousand of immature ova at the time of birth. These ovum start maturing only from the age of puberty. 

  • Only one ovum is produced by one ovary in one month and another month, another ovum is produced by one ovary. It is taking place in alternately. 

  • Ovum are releases from the ovary into the abdominal cavity, this process is known as ovulation.

  • Ovaries are also produces female reproductive hormones such as estrogen and progesterone.

  1. Fallopian tubes:-

  • Female human consists of pair of fallopian tubes.

  • It is also known as oviducts.

  • Oviducts arise from the ovaries and end at the uterine fundus.

  • Oviduct function is to carry the egg once which is released into the uterus where it can fertilise with the male sperm.

  1. Uterus:-

  • It is also known as womb.

  • Uterus is a large muscular organ that is present in the pelvic cavity.

  • These parts of the takes action during the Menstruation cycle.

  • It is also takes action of fertilization and development of the foetus.

  1. Cervix:- Cervix is a muscular ring like structure that is present towards the lower end of uterus . It is dilates at time of delivery of baby.

  2. Vagina:- 

  • It is also known as birth canal.

  • Vagina is a muscular tube like structure. It is present lower end of the cervix and leads towards outer of the female body.

  • Vagina is a pathway for the penis to enter the female body where the sperms are deposit, which then swim their way and reach to the uterus where egg are present and then fertilized.

  1. Urethra:-

  • Urethra is shorter than males.

  • It is serves only for the passage of urine.


Fig:- Female Reproductive system

  • Process of fertilisation:-

  • Testes are responsible for producing male gametes is known as sperms by a process of spermatogenesis. Laydig cells of the testes are synthesising male hormones are known as testosterone, which helps in the formation of sperms but also use in the development of secondary sexual characters in males.

  • Ovaries are responsible for producing female gametes is known as ovum by a process of oogenesis. 

  • The sperms are deposited into the female  body during the process called as sexual intercourse. Sperms are motile in nature and they travels reach to the eggs that is released from the ovaries and collected by the fallopian tube. When the both the gametes are meets, and fertilize to form the diploid gametes. And then uterus prepare itself to receive and nurture the growing embryo in every month. 

  • Placenta is a special type of tissues which helps the embryo to gets nutrition from the mother bloods. Placenta is a disc which is embedded into the uterine wall. It is also remove embryo waste from mother blood through placenta. 

  • Finger like projection are known as villi. It contains on the embryo side of the tissues. Mother’s sides of the blood spaces are surrounded by villi. They provide a large surface area for glucose and oxygen to pass from the mother into the embryo. 

  • Duration of time period developing embryo is nine months.

  • The child is born in the process of rhythmic contraction of the muscles in the uterus. 


Fig:- Human reproduction process

Leave a Reply