Akanksha Soni, Academic Content Writer at Edumarz
According to the World Health Organisation ( WHO ):- Reproductive health is defined as a total well being in all aspects of reproduction such as behavioural, emotional, physical and social.
The body has a very close relationship during sexual activity, where many diseases are transferred from male to female or vice versa. This process is known as Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). It is also known as Venereal diseases (VD) or Reproductive tract infections (RTIs). These include bacterial and viral infections like gonorrhoea, syphilis, warts, HIV-AIDS, chlamydiasis, and trichomoniasis etc. There are many contraceptive methods to prevent reproductive tract infections and unwanted pregnancy are as follows:-
Barrier method or physical contraceptive
Injection or implantation
Physical contraceptive:- In this method penis or vagina are covered by thin rubber latex sheath to prevent the contact of sperm and ovum. These barriers are known as condoms which are made of thin rubber latex sheath. It is available for both male and female. The female condoms such as diaphragm, cervical caps and vaults .
Natural methods:– In this method the possibility of meeting sperm and ovum without any harm is avoided. Natural methods are:-
Periodic abstinence:- Periodic abstinence is the process in which couple avoided from sexual activity for 10 to 17 days during menstruation cycle, where ovulation can be expected.
Withdrawal or coitus interruption:– Coitus interruption is the process where male partner withdraws his penis from the vagina just before ejaculation to avoid insemination.
Lactational amenorrhea:– After parturition, there is a period of lactation. The lactation period is six months where the menstruation cycle does not occur. The possibility of fertilization during this time is absent.
Intra uterine devices (IUDs):- IUDs are used only for females, where the doctor or nurse inserts the IUDs into the uterus through the vagina to prevent unwanted pregnancy.
Example:– Copper-T and Multiload 375.
Oral contraceptives:- Oral contraceptives are used only for females. It is used in the form of tablets or pills that contain progesterone or a combination of progestogen-estrogen. These pills alter the hormonal balance of the body so that eggs does not get released and fertilisation does not take place.
Examples:- Saheli and i-pill.
Injection or implantation:- In this method, progesterone or progestogen-estrogen is used as an injection or implants under the female skin.
Surgical methods:– The surgical method is a permanent method of preventing pregnancy. It is available for both male and females. In male, a small part of the vas deferens are surgically removed or tied off. This is known as vasectomy.
In females, a small part of the fallopian tube are surgically removed or tied off. This is known as tubectomy.
Fig:- Contraception methods