Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants


Akanksha Soni, Academic content writer at Edumarz

  • Sexual reproduction of flowering plants are takes place in angiosperms plants.  They contain both male and female gametes. All parts of flowers involves in the process of reproduction, although some of them are sterile. The flower may be unisexual ( It conatin either stamens or pistils. Example- Papaya and watermelon) or bisexual ( It conatin both stames and pistils. Example- Hibiscus and mustard)

  • Structure of flowering plants:- Structure of flowering plants are as follows:-

  1. Calyx:- It is also known as sepals. It is the outermost part of a flower. They usually exhibit green colour but sometimes they may be a colour like petals. This state of sepals is known as petaloid.

  2. Corolla:– It is also known as petals. It is the second outermost part of a flower. These petals are coloured, thin, soft, and sometimes fragrant that would help in the process of pollination as they attract animals and insects. 

  3. Stamens:– Stamens are the male reproductive part of flowers. It is also known as androecium. These stamens contain two parts namely anther and filament.

  1. Anther:- Anther is a four lobed sac like structure which is responsible for pollen formation. 

  2. Filaments:– Filaments are thread like structures which are attached to the anther, and they keep the anther in place.

  1. Pistil:- Pistil is the female reproductive part of a flower. It is also known as Gynoecium.  It is the last part of the flower. Pistil is composed and occupies the central position of the thalamus. Gynoecium are monocarpellary ( single pistil, example- peas and beans), multicarpellary  ( more than one pistil), syncarpous ( combined with pistil, example- Tomato and cucumber),  apocarpous ( free pistil, example- Lotus and vinca ). These pistil has three parts:-

  1. Ovary:- Ovary is a chamber-like structure where ovules or eggs are stored.

  2. Stigma:– Stigma is sticky in nature, where the pollen from other flowers is attached.

  3. Style:– It is a tubular-like structure that connects the ovary and stigma. It is responsible for the transportation of pollen from the stigma to the ovary and keeping the stigma in place. 

  • Pollination of flowering plants:- Pollination is the process of matured pollen grains are transferred from the male reproductive part (anther) to the female reproductive part (stigma) for the purpose of sexual reproduction in flowering plants. Pollination takes place by animals, insects and winds etc. This process is known as Pollination.  It is two types are as follows:-

  1. Self-pollination:- Self-pollination is the process of pollen grains being transferred from anther to the stigma of the same flower, or another flower on the same plant. 

  2. Cross-pollination:- Cross-pollination is the process of pollen grains being transferred from anther of one flower into the stigma of another flower of different plants of the same species.

  • Fertilization of flowering plants:- After pollination, the male gamete (pollen grains) fuses with female gametes present in the ovule. After fertilisation , zygotes formed which are divides several times to form an embryo within the ovule. These ovules turns into seeds while the ovary develops into the fruits. These seed contain a future plant or embryo which develops into a seedling under suitable conditions. This process is known as Germination.  After this, the sepals, petals, stigma, stamens and style may shrivel and fall off, and new plants are developed.  


Fig:- Sexual reproduction of flowering plants.

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