The introduction of High-yielding variety seeds and the increased use of fertilizers, pesticides and irrigation facilities are collectively known as Green Revolution, which resulted in increased crop yielding making India self-sufficient.
Green Revolution was implemented because:
Food Security:The colonial rule had caused Indian agriculture to suffer from a low level of productivity, especially in foodgrains, as more emphasis during colonial rule had been on cash crops which served as raw material to British industries. This resulted in a shortage of foodgrains in India and made the Green Revolution necessary to ensure food security for the population.
Low Irrigation Facility: The land area under irrigation cover was only 17% in 1951. The major part of agriculture was dependent on rainfall from monsoon and in case of scanty rainfall or
delayed monsoon, crops were destroyed. This caused a low level of agricultural production and a solution was needed to overcome it.
Conventional Methods: The use of conventional inputs and the absence of modern techniques led to low levels of agricultural productivity.
Green Revolution benefited the farmers in the following ways:
(i) Increase in Income: Green Revolution helped the farmers to increase
the productivity of their landholdings. Increased productivity led to an increase in their incomes.
(ii) Reduced Dependency on Natural Forces: Before the advent of the Green Revolution,
farmers were very much affected by the fluctuations of the climate. The various
techniques of the Green Revolution reduced their vulnerability to natural
forces and helped them to harvest a good crop even in adverse conditions