-Mandavi, SME At Edumarz
SOLUTION : Osmosis is a process in which solvent molecules move across a semipermeable membrane from a low-concentration solution to a high-concentration solution. Osmosis is a passive process that means it does not require energy. It enables the transfer of molecules from a higher concentration zone to a lower concentration region until the concentrations on both sides of the membrane are equal. Osmosis can occur in any solvent, including gases and supercritical liquids.
There are three different types of solutions:
Isotonic Solution, Hypertonic Solution, Hypotonic Solution
There are two forms of osmosis:
When a substance is immersed in a hypotonic solution, the solvent molecules travel into the cell, causing the cell to become turgid or undergo deplasmolysis. This is referred to as endosmosis.
When a material is placed in a hypertonic solution, the solvent molecules travel outside the cell, causing the cell to become flaccid or plasmolyzed. Exosmosis is the term for this process.
Osmosis has a varied effect on the cells. An animal cell will lyse when placed in a hypotonic solution, but not a plant cell. Because the plant cell’s walls are thick, so when it is placed in a hypotonic solution, the cells will not explode. Only an isotonic solution allows an animal cell to survive. The plant cells are no longer turgid in an isotonic solution, and the plant’s leaves droop.
Reverse osmosis is the process by which osmotic flow can be stopped or reversed. It can be achieved by applying external pressure to the sides of the solution. The osmotic pressure is the minimum pressure required to stop the solvent transfer.