-Priyanti, Subject Matter Expert at Edumarz
Solution: Receptors are biological transducers capable of converting the energy from external and internal stimuli to electrical impulses. Receptors maybe scattered throughout the body and function on their own, or come together to give rise to a sense organ. Afferent nerve fibres connect receptors to the central nervous system (CNS) and they have a dynamic receptive field. Different types of receptors function in different ways, and they can be classified into six main categories on the basis of their actions.
Mechanoreceptors: sensitive to mechanical stimuli such as touch and hearing
Thermoreceptors: sensitive to changes in temperature
Photoreceptors: sensitive to light
Chemoreceptors: sensitive to changes of chemical nature such as taste and smell
Osmoreceptors: sensitive to osmotic changes
Nociceptors: sensitive to pain
When receptors of the body sustain damage, they’re unable to process stimuli and convert them into electrical signals; as a result their responses get delayed or stop altogether. The patient can no longer be effectively aware of their internal and external environment and fail to react appropriately to different conditions. For example, if photoreceptors are damaged, it would lead to blindness as the responsible organs (rods and cones of eyes) fail to perceive light.