Which organelle is known as the powerhouse of the cell? Why?


-Aqsa, Subject Matter Expert at Edumarz.


Solution: Mitochondria is known as the powerhouse of the cell. Mitochondria is either filamentous or granular. The size of mitochondria varies from 0.5 to 0.2 μ. Mitochondria has two parts – the outer envelope and a central cavity filled with a matrix. The surrounding envelope is made up of two unit membranes with perimitochondrial space in between. The outer membrane is smooth, and the inner membrane has many infoldings which extend into the matrix. These infoldings are called cristae.


Mitochondria are known as the powerhouse of the cell because it helps in the formation and storage of energy-rich compound called ATP. It is formed inside mitochondria as a result of oxidation. ATP is a source of energy required for numerous cellular reactions. Mitochondria are considered with oxidation and phosphorylation reaction of Kreb’s cycle during aerobic respiration. It has inner membrane sub-units, elementary particles, or oxysomes. These particles consist of a head called the F1 sub-unit and a base piece called the F0 subunit. The F1-F0 combination has a special ATPase for oxidative phosphorylation. Besides the oxidation of carbohydrates, mitochondria are also involved in the oxidation of proteins and fats.


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